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United States Invasion of Veracruz, Mexico Photo Postcard Collection

Identifier: MSS 0599

Scope and Content

Archive of 139 postcards containing photographs of the landing of the U.S. Marines and Soldiers on April 21, 1914 in Veracruz, Mexico and the ensuing combat, deaths, damages, and invasion. Includes postcards of the wounded Mexican Naval Lieutenant José Azueta and his funeral, Mexican soldiers, views of the city of Veracruz, prisoners released from Juan de Ulúa Prison, a raising of the United States flag, military reviews, naval personnel and ships, hydroplanes, and the march in Brooklyn, NY on May 11, 1914 honoring the U.S. dead. In addition, there are 13 issues of an abbreviated daily log from the cruiser U.S.S. San Francisco from February to May of 1914. Also, an advertising hotel photocard with the notation "Had rooms here at time of American invasion 1914".

There are four photographers involved in this collection. Most of the photographs are by Walter P. Hadsell from the United States, owner of a Kodak store in the city of Veracruz. The other photographs are by Ponciano Flores Pérez of Veracruz who took mostly photos of the Mexican side, one photo from Luis Castaños, one photo from the official photographer for the U.S. Navy named Enrique Muller, and an unknown who signed with an embossed signature not identified. The great majority of the photos were published as photo postcards.


  • Creation: 1914

Language of Materials

Includes materials written in English and Spanish.


The collection is open for research.

Biographical/Historical Note

The United States invasion of the city of Veracruz took place during the Mexican Revolution from April 21 to November 23, 1914. In 1910, Mexico was under the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz, and in 1911 Francisco Madero was elected president. Two years later, in February 1913, General Victoriano Huerta together with the United States Ambassador to Mexico, Henry Lane Wilson, staged a coup d'état against Madero and had him killed along with Vice President José María Pino Suárez. The President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson did not approve the intervention of his representative in Mexican politics and prohibited any shipment and sale of arms to the Mexican government. On April 9, 1914, the “Tampico Affair” occurred, in which Victoriano Huerta’s officers arrested nine United States sailors picking up gasoline in a restricted area of the port of Tampico. President Woodrow Wilson demanded their release and a salute to the United States flag, Mexico released the sailors but refused to salute the U.S. flag. The United States government used the Tampico incident as a pretext to invade Mexico.

On April 21, 1914, the German ship Ypiranga was bound for Veracruz with weapons for Victoriano Huerta. President Wilson ordered the U.S. troops to invade Veracruz, seize the custom-house, and prevent the delivery of arms supplies to Huerta's government. Mexican soldiers, cadets from the Naval Academy, civilians, volunteers, and freed prisoners fought against the United States troops. The invasion lasted for seven months and ended with the negotiation from a coalition of ministers of foreign affairs from Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, known as the “ABC Powers”.


.5 Linear Feet (1 Boxes and 139 postcards)


Archive of 139 postcards containing photographs of the landing of the U.S. Marines and Soldiers on April 21, 1914 in Veracruz, Mexico and the ensuing combat, deaths, damages, and invasion.


University of Florida Smathers Library Building

Alternate Form of Finding Aid

This guide is available in Spanish at

Acquisition Information

Purchased in 2009 from Howard Karno.

Related Materials

John W. Betterley Diary, at the University of Alabama Special Collections.

Preliminary Guide to the Vera Cruz, Mexico Photograph Collection, at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Elmer and Diane Powell Collection on Mexico and the Mexican Revolution, at Southern Methodist University, DeGolyer Library.

Jack London Collection, at The Huntington Library, Art Museum, and Botanical Gardens.


A Guide to the United States Invasion of Veracruz, Mexico Photo Postcard Collection
Finding aid created by Matt Kruse and Nelissa E. Caraballo-Ramos
November 2021
Description rules
Finding Aid Prepared Using Dacs
Language of description
Script of description
Language of description note
Description is written in English.

Repository Details

Part of the Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida Repository

George A. Smathers Libraries
PO Box 117005
Gainesville Florida 32611-7005 United States of America